Open Data and Openly Accessible Data
The figure below gives a definition of what is Open Data and what is Open Access to data.
Learn more about it
Towards Open Science  is a movement to make scientific research, data and dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society (see «TreeTaxonomic» https://www.fosteropenscience.eu/).
Open Government data
What is Open Government Data? Open government data means :
Data produced or commissioned by government or government controlled entities.
Data which is open as defined in the Open Definition – that is, it can be freely used, reused and redistributed by anyone.
Why Open Government Data? There are three main reasons :
Transparency: not just access, but also sharing and reuse.
Releasing social and commercial value : creation of innovative business and services that deliver social and commercial value.
Participatory Governance: making a full “read/write” society, able to contribute to the process of governance.
Many governments created online portals to publish their data, ex.:
For the European Union, two portals are available:
- The EU Open Data Portal: gives access to open data from the EU institutions, agencies and other bodies.
- The Public Data portal: provides datasets from local, regional and national public bodies across Europe.
Non governmental organizations data
Open multidisciplinary repositories
OpenAIRE : open Access to peer-reviewed journal articles, conference papers and datasets of various kinds from different data providers :
The Common Crawl dataset : the Common Crawl corpus contains petabytes of data collected over the last 7 years. It contains raw web page data, extracted metadata and text extractions. The dataset lives on Amazon S3 as part of the Amazon Public Datasets program. From Public Data Sets, you can download the files entirely free using HTTP or S3.
United Nations : open statistical data from member States and UN Agencies.
The World Bank : open statistical data relating to developing countries.
Open repositories for Social Sciences
This is a list of repositories and databases for open data in social sciences (international). Access is open unless otherwise stated.
Databrary : a repository for sharing and reusing research video data and related metadata in the developmental and learning sciences. Hosted at New York University with support from The Pennsylvania State University. (Registration required)
Economic and Social Science Data Service: From the UK Data Archive (UKDA) and Institute for Social and Economic Research (ISER), University of Essex; Manchester Information and Associated Services (MIMAS), and the Cathie Marsh Centre for Census and Survey Research (CCSR), University of Manchester. (Registration required)
ICPSR : inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research. At the University of Michigan.
National Archive of Criminal Justice Data : holds over 700 data collections relating to criminal justice.
Roper Center for Public Opinion Research : data from surveys of public opinion from the 1930s to the present.
This is a list of repositories and databases for open data in social sciences (national). Access is open unless otherwise stated.
Réseau Quetelet : coordinates the archiving, documentation and distribution of data in the humainities and social sciences from the Centre Maurice Halbwachs (ADISP), the Centre for Socio-political Data (CDSP) and the INED data service. (Open. The user is requested to sign an obligations form).
Progedo Data Infrastructure : the PROGEDO large infrastructure ensures the implementation of a public policy for social sciences and humanities. It focuses especially on research on law, economics, geography, management, history, political sciences and sociology.
Huma-Num (services Isidore et Nakala) : une très grande infrastructure de recherche (TGIR) visant à faciliter le tournant numérique de la recherche en sciences humaines et sociales. Met à disposition un ensemble de services pour le stockage, le traitement, l'exposition, le signalement, la diffusion et la conservation sur le long termes des données numériques de la recherche en sciences humaines et sociales.
Coordination of infrastructures in social sciences  (European and national levels)
Linked Open Data (LOD)
The term ‘‘Linked Data’’ refers to the trend of connecting and publishing data using the web. It aims to publish not only documents but also data, and contributes to the extension of the web into a global data space based on open standards (semantic web standards: RDF, SPARQL). This data space is called the ‘’Web of data’’ .
It was created in response to two main questions:
- How to publish data that is reusable?
- How to promote the integration of data from different sources?
The proposed solutions consist in imposing a structure on the data to facilitate their sharing and reuse and to use a standard model to facilitate their discovery and integration.
Linked Data definition from http://linkeddata.org/ :
“Linked Data is about using the Web to connect related data that wasn't previously linked, or using the Web to lower the barriers to linking data currently linked using other methods. More specifically, Wikipedia defines Linked Data as "a term used to describe a recommended best practice for exposing, sharing, and connecting pieces of data, information and knowledge on the Semantic Web using URIs and RDF." ”
A significant number of organizations have adopted the principles of linked data as a way to publish their data, which has created a global space of interconnected data consisting of several billions of RDF triples from many sources: geographical data, statistics, genetic data, medical data, scientific publications, movies, music, etc. (see figure below, http://lod-cloud.net/ ).
Here after some usefull links to learn more about Linked Open Data and Semantic web :
- Linked Open Data, The Essentials ->
- Linked Open Vocabulary ->
- W3C, Linked Open Data ->
- W3C, Semantic Web ->
- The refrence scientific paper, by Tim Berners-Lee et al. The Semantic Web A new form of Web content that is meaningful to computers will unleash a revolution of new possibilities
 Open Government Data (January 2, 2017) http://opengovernmentdata.org/
 Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data : Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Synthesis Lectures on the Semantic Web. Morgan & Claypool Publishers.