Open Data and Openly Accessible Data

Definition :

The figure below gives a definition of what is Open Data and what is Open Access to data.

Learn more about it

Towards Open Science [1] is a movement to make scientific research, data and dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society (see «TreeTaxonomic» https://www.fosteropenscience.eu/).

Open Government data

What is Open Government Data? Open government data means [2]:

  • Data produced or commissioned by government or government controlled entities.

  • Data which is open as defined in the Open Definition – that is, it can be freely used, reused and redistributed by anyone.

Why Open Government Data? There are three main reasons [2]:

  1. Transparency: not just access, but also sharing and reuse.

  2. Releasing social and commercial value : creation of innovative business and services that deliver social and commercial value.

  3. Participatory Governance: making a full “read/write” society, able to contribute to the process of governance.

Many governments created online portals to publish their data, ex.:

For the European Union, two portals are available:

  1. The EU Open Data Portal: gives access to open data from the EU institutions, agencies and other bodies.

  1. The Public Data portal: provides datasets from local, regional and national public bodies across Europe.

Non governmental organizations data

Open multidisciplinary repositories

Open repositories for Social Sciences

This is a list of repositories and databases for open data in social sciences (international). Access is open unless otherwise stated.

This is a list of repositories and databases for open data in social sciences (national). Access is open unless otherwise stated.

  • Réseau Quetelet : coordinates the archiving, documentation and distribution of data in the humainities and social sciences from the Centre Maurice Halbwachs (ADISP), the Centre for Socio-political Data (CDSP) and the INED data service. (Open. The user is requested to sign an obligations form).

  • Progedo Data Infrastructure : the PROGEDO large infrastructure ensures the implementation of a public policy for social sciences and humanities. It focuses especially on research on law, economics, geography, management, history, political sciences and sociology.

  • Huma-Num (services Isidore et Nakala) : une très grande infrastructure de recherche (TGIR) visant à faciliter le tournant numérique de la recherche en sciences humaines et sociales. Met à disposition un ensemble de services pour le stockage, le traitement, l'exposition, le signalement, la diffusion et la conservation sur le long termes des données numériques de la recherche en sciences humaines et sociales.

Coordination of infrastructures in social sciences [1] (European and national levels)

Linked Open Data (LOD)

The term ‘‘Linked Data’’ refers to the trend of connecting and publishing data using the web. It aims to publish not only documents but also data, and contributes to the extension of the web into a global data space based on open standards (semantic web standards: RDF, SPARQL). This data space is called the ‘’Web of data’’ [3].

It was created in response to two main questions:

  1. How to publish data that is reusable?
  2. How to promote the integration of data from different sources?

The proposed solutions consist in imposing a structure on the data to facilitate their sharing and reuse and to use a standard model to facilitate their discovery and integration.

Linked Data definition from http://linkeddata.org/ :

“Linked Data is about using the Web to connect related data that wasn't previously linked, or using the Web to lower the barriers to linking data currently linked using other methods. More specifically, Wikipedia defines Linked Data as "a term used to describe a recommended best practice for exposing, sharing, and connecting pieces of data, information and knowledge on the Semantic Web using URIs and RDF." ”

A significant number of organizations have adopted the principles of linked data as a way to publish their data, which has created a global space of interconnected data consisting of several billions of RDF triples from many sources: geographical data, statistics, genetic data, medical data, scientific publications, movies, music, etc. (see figure below, http://lod-cloud.net/ ).

Learn more..

Here after some usefull links to learn more about Linked Open Data and Semantic web :

References

[1] http://www.inist.fr/?Support-de-formation-Gestion-et

[2] Open Government Data (January 2, 2017) http://opengovernmentdata.org/

[3] Heath, T. and Bizer, C. (2011). Linked Data : Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Synthesis Lectures on the Semantic Web. Morgan & Claypool Publishers.